Such as the significance of Adam and Eve in Eden, the Apples of Eden, humans being made in the image of the Precursors, and the names of some of the Precursors are names of gods of classic myths.
Personally I've studied religion most of my life and I find the Greek/Roman, Norse, and Egyptian mythologies fascinating. The Bible says that the Serpent tempted Eve in the garden of Eden. God put the Tree of KNOWLEDGE of good and evil within the garden. The Serpent told Eve that if she ate the fruit of the forbidden tree she would gain knowledge and would then be like God. So she ate the fruit and gave it to Adam to eat.
So in the AC universe Adam and Eve were the first hybrids of humans and precursors, who stole and apple of Eden in the hope that they could use it and the knowledge it gave them to liberate humans from the enslavement of the precursors. As the number of hybrids grew so did the knowledge gained from the pieces of Eden.
After the great catastrophe when there were more humans and hybrids than there were members of the First Civilization, some humans sought to be more like the precursors by controlling the rest of humanity with the pieces of Eden and others wanted to use them not to control but simply to gain knowledge for the betterment of mankind.
So now we are still left with how is knowledge the Father of Understanding? Humans have free will and limited knowledge. The templars see the First Civilization as the perfect Utopian society so they want to recreate that for humans in the present day. And for them the only way of achieving that is to use the knowledge left by the Precursors in the pieces of Eden.
The above is just my theory as to the identity of the Father of Understanding, however there are other theories that say the Father of Understanding is an actual individual and those being:
There is another that says the FoU is Baphomet but its only because the literal translation of Baphomet from Arabic is The Father of Understanding. And because during the crusades the Knights Templar was thought to be worshiping Baphomet and many confessed to it but only after being tortured.
But let me know your thoughts!!